The iron pillar is situated at Qutub Minar complex, Mehrauli, New Delhi.
Some people also say that it was made in the memory of the Gupta King Chandragupta 2. According to the ancient records, it was present in Madhya Pradesh before it moved to Delhi. It was shifted by King Anangpal in the 10th century CE from Udaygiri to its present location. Anangpal built a Vishnu Temple here and wanted this pillar to be a part of that temple.
Archeologists confirm that this was created at least 1600 years ago, but it could be much older than that.
In 2002, scientists studied the iron pillar and realized that it has a strange way of reacting to the atmosphere. Normally, Iron reacts with moisture in the atmosphere or rain and produces Iron oxide, which is called Rust. This rust is very powerful, it will deteriorate the iron, and eventually destroy the entire structure.
But the iron pillar does something very strange. When it comes in contact with moisture or rain, it produces a strange material called Misawite which has not been seen anywhere before. This material actually forms a protective coating over the iron pillar and shields it from damage, and also increases its magnetic property.
The iron pillar is actually made of 98% Iron, 1% Phosphorous and the remaining 1% is made of an ancient concoction called Vajra-sanghata. This concoction is clearly explained in ancient Indian texts. The Vajra-sanghata is created by mixing 8 parts of lead, 2 parts of bell metal and 2 parts of calx of brass. So, if you look at the total composition of the iron pillar, it is made of a complex alloy, created in ancient times.
Instead of rusting which is Iron Oxide, the phosphorous and Vajra-sanghata make water vapor which is H2O, to convert into Misawite, a compound of Iron, Oxygen and Hydrogen (y-FeOOH). This layer actually protects the pillar from rusting. So, the pillar would accumulate this protective coating over the course of many centuries, making it even more stronger.
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